Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois

Summary æ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ✓ W.E.B. Du Bois

review Black Reconstruction in America 1860-1880 100 After four centuries of bondage the nineteenth century marked the long awaited release of millions of black slaves Subseuently these former slaves attempted to reconstruct the basis of American democracy W E B Du Bois one of the greatest intellectual leaders in United States history evaluates the twenty years of fateful history that followed the Civil War with special reference to the efforts and experiences of African AmericansDu Bois's w. This is the book that made me realize how we in the US failed both Blacks and our democracy by undermining euality when we let Reconstruction fail so miserably after the Civil War

Free download Black Reconstruction in America 1860-1880Black Reconstruction in America 1860-1880

review Black Reconstruction in America 1860-1880 100 Irectly traceable to American slavery on which modern commerce and industry was founded Du Bois argues Moreover the resulting color caste was adopted forwarded and approved by white labor and resulted in the subordination of colored labor throughout the world As a result the majority of the world's laborers became part of a system of industry that destroyed democracy and led to World War I and the Great Depression This book tells that stor. In 1929 the editors of the Encyclopedia Britannica reuested that WEB Du Bois draft an article on the subject of southern Reconstruction following the American Civil War for the forthcoming edition In a passage challenging the interpretation of reconstruction governments which had become dominant in the United States over the course of the previous generation Du Bois insisted that it was Negro loyalty and the Negro vote alone that restored the South to the Union established the new democracy both for white and black and instituted the public schools While the editors praised the article they struck the passage and Du Bois angrily withdrew the article from consideration More than an academic ego was at stake The narrative of Reconstruction taught in schools and universities across the United States held that Reconstruction had been an unmitigated disaster a retrograde saturnalia of public corruption and tyranny which had at its heart an alliance of exploitative Northerners and African Americans who were mentally and morally inferior to the task of self government Cherry picked evidence racist assumptions and distorted emphasis had created a story about the past which served as one of many bulwarks of justification for the segregated racial caste system of the solid South I write then in a field devastated by passion and belief Du Bois observed near the end of his 1935 work Black Reconstruction a methodical rebuttal that ran over seven hundred pages long While trying not to fail to sympathize with human frailties and contradiction in the eternal paradox of good and evil I stand at the end of this writing literally aghast at what American historians have done to this field An eighty eight year old woman interviewed by a WPA agent shortly afterward about her childhood as a slave put it even succinctly I know folks think the books tell the truth but they shore don t The struggle to recover the truth about the United States first large scale experiment in interracial democracy has since taken on a powerful symbolic uality reflecting changing and sometimes conflicting visions of the place of African Americans within the United States Du Bois most fundamental challenge to the racist interpretive school fostered largely by William Dunning and the predominantly southern scholars who studied under him at Columbia University was also the most simple I am going to tell this story as though Negroes were ordinary human beings realizing that this attitude will from the first seriously curtail my audience he wrote in an introductory note to his reader Rather than letters and diaries of hostile white southerners Du Bois based his account on the voluminous government documents of the period from the records of the state and federal government to military records and correspondence and the reports of the Freedman s Bureau agents A lonely dissent at the time much of Black Reconstruction reads as a kind of sweeping master text for the historical investigations published in the later part of the century with subseuent scholars merely following up on the intimations in various paragraphs and chapters Rather than passive recipients of Northern liberation Du Bois spotlighted the role of southern Blacks in the winning of the Civil War and the re admittance of the former Confederate states to the union under the leadership of interracial coalitions of Republican voters While acknowledging the corruption of Reconstruction governments he placed it within the broader context 19th century patronage politics generally and of the constant hostile threat of white supremacist violence in particular Lauding the progressive efforts made by state governments to uplift their citizens through economic development wider granting of the franchise and the establishment of the first public school systems Du Bois framed the true stakes of the Reconstruction experiment as a contest between an advancing democratic principle and the conservative opposition of powerful proprietary interests What were to be the limits of democratic control in the United States If all labor black as well as white became free were given schools and the right to vote what control could or should be set to the power and action of these laborers how would property and privilege be protected In a conclusion redolent with New Dealer denunciations of economic aristocracy Du Bois brought home the conseuences of the tide of reactionary violence that redeemed the former rebel states and created the Solid South For the United States and the world it influenced imperialism bolstered by an artificially conservative South commitment to a racist ideology and global war to defend the profits drawn from exploitation of labor Amid the lengthening economic emergency of the Great Depression Du Bois noted that a clear vision of a world without inordinate individual wealth of capital without profit and of income based on work alone is the path out not only for America but for all men Across this path stands the South with flaming sword

Summary æ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ✓ W.E.B. Du Bois

review Black Reconstruction in America 1860-1880 100 Ords best indicate the broader parameters of his work the attitude of any person toward this book will be distinctly influenced by his theories of the Negro race If he believes that the Negro in America and in general is an average and ordinary human being who under given environment develops like other human beings then he will read this story and judge it by the facts adducedThe plight of the white working class throughout the world is d. It would not have been American however not to have maintained some color discrimination however pettyBroken limbs broken heads the mangling of bodies all prove that it was a contest between enraged men on the one side from hatred to a race and on the other desire for self preservation revenge for past grievances and the inhuman murder of their comradesHow extraordinary and what a tribute to ignorance and religious hypocrisy is the fact that in the minds of most people even those of liberals only murder makes men The slave pleaded he was humble he protected the women of the South and the world ignored him The slave killed white men and behold he was a manIn fine I am going to tell this story as though Negroes were ordinary human beings realizing that this attitude will from the first seriously curtail my audienceAll observers spoke of the fact that the slaves were slow and churlish that they wasted material and malingered at their work Of course they did This was not racial but economic It was the answer of any group of laborers forced down to the last ditch They might be made to work continuously but no power could make them work wellThe whites might give suffrage to the Negroes but if the Negroes gave suffrage to the whites it would result in the Negro losing itHere were grown sensible men arguing about a written form of government adopted ninety years before when men did not believe that slavery could outlive their generation in this country or that civil war could possibly be its result when no man foresaw the Industrial Revolution or the rise of the Cotton Kingdom and yet now with incantation and abracadabra the leaders of the nation tried to peer back into the magic crystal and out of a bit of paper called the Constitution find eternal and immutable law laid down for their guidance forever and ever Amen It often falls that the books that are most defended are the ones who least need such action Criticize an enshrined whit eboy book of status uo bliss and you ve poked the hornets nest of angry white masculine entitled fragility wherein at least one individual will make an account on whether digitally communicative medium you ve chosen in order to threaten you with rape For the books that don t bathe in such reactionary waters there is the tightrope of too much criticism can kill the past and too little can stifle the future I want and to extent need the follow up to Du Bois views with the black woman s perspective the indigenous perspective the Asian perspective the blue collar perspective and every entailing diversification that necessarily resists within such categories for the assumptions of land division in a settler state and black women who built the first schools whom Du Bois doesn t see fit to name and the unknown sex worker framed at the very conclusion as the antichrist are all gaping wounds in what is some of the best and bravest analysis I ve read in years This book won me over to the point of my declaring it a favorite but it is a favorite only for what may come of it It made little difference what laws were made so long as their interpretation by the courts and administration was dictated by capitalFor 250 years the Negroes had worked on this land and by every analogy in history when they were emancipated the land ought to have belonged in large part to the workersTake out the accusation of being black which is still a crime in the United States and there remains in such tirades as this only a protest against ignorance and poverty presuming to rule intelligence and wealth and yet under the circumstances how else was the necessary economic and social revolution to be effectedWhen citizens undertake to claim a right for themselves they must claim it as a principle and therefore speak in the name of all who are deprived of the same immunities As long as they do not consider the uestion from a high standpoint as long as they overlook the principle for a mere expediency they will have no force whateverIf the Northern fanatics are the means with which God wishes to confer upon us these rights I will take the rights whether they or the devil brought them to us I know that we have themIt may be said then that the argument for giving the right to vote to the mass of the poor and ignorant still stands as defensible without for a moment denying that there should not be such a class in a civilized community but if the class is there the fault is the fault of the community and the community must suffer and pay for itIf the majority did not want Negro rule or Negro participation in government the majority was right and they would not allow themselves to stop and ask how that majority was madeThe freedmen are peaceable and inoffensive yet if the whites continue to make it all their lives are worth to go through the country as free people have the right to do they will goad them to that point at which submission and patience cease to be a virtueIn a republic the people precede their governmentThe break was begun by the extraordinary corruption graft and theft that became and evident in the country from 1868 on as a result of the wild idea that industry and progress for the people of the United States were compatible with the selfish seuestration of profit for private individuals and powerful corporations The concept of time hand in hand with progress is a lie Correlation does not imply causation There were probably black people in office in 1870 s US than there is in 2010 s US and the glazed and artificial timeline spouted off in public conceptions is nothing but the result of systematic erasure through indoctrination in education and murder in the streets If there were as many defenders of this book as there is of favorable perceptions of King and King Jr s upcoming collaboration I would not have my time wasted with others assumptions that all these ideas of imperialism and militaryprison industrial complex and school to prison pipeline are very new and very modern and very chic and thus logically enough have not yet torn down their master s house There could have been land reformation la Mao and Soviet Russia with former slaves as the beneficiaries and words of those who say it was a good thing that that didn t happen are worth nothing if they re the type to think upon what would it be like had Hitler won Marxism and colonialism and workers unite were all old news and the fact that feminism is given short shrift despite the genderless implications of the n word and the implications of settler state in conjunction with ownership of land are given none may be chalked up to the author but not to the point of giving this title any less time than is given to far hateful and mainstream sucking texts As stated I value this text for its potential as a crosroads not out of any misguided sense of perfection and the fact that I don t offer much concrete evidence of this is because the sheer wealth of uotes that I give in the margins make such efforts redundant The text is than capable of speaking for itself th eproblem lies with the centuries of the powerful chronologically disjointing it and claiming that these issues may be looked at now but must be resolved much much much later WEB Du Bois survived the KKK from the end of the Civil War to the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement and still wasn t given the payment he was due How much time do you need to surmount your coddle entitlement for the sake of human beings No idiotic program could be laid down than to reuire a people follow a written rule of government 90 years old if that rule had been definitely broken in order to preserve the unity of the government and to destroy an economic anachronism In such a crisis legalists may insist that consistency with precedent is important than firm and far sighted rebuilding But manifestly it is not Rule following legal precedence and political consistency are not important than right justice and plain commonsense Here then came a plain uestion of definition was it a crime in the judgment of the people of the United States in 1867 for a President to block the overwhelming will of a successful majority of voters during a period of nearly three yearsNo history is accurate and no political science scientific that starts with the gratuitous assumption that the Negro race has been proven incapable of modern civilizationDuring the organization of the convention it was moved that the word colored be added to the name of each Negro delegate Thereupon the Reverend James Lynch a colored man afterward Secretary of State moved to amend it so that the color of each delegate s hair should be added alsoThere was here as in South Carolina the same charge against this convention and against succeeding legislatures that they did not sufficiently represent wealth they represented poverty and the majority of the members white and black were not taxpayers They represented labor and were voting and working as far as they intelligently could to improve their condition and not to increase the profits of the hirers of laborThe dictatorship of property as represented by the wild freebooting from the close of the war to the panic had proven to many minds that free competition in industry was not going to bring proper control and developmentGreat corporations through their control of new capital began to establish a super government On the one hand they crushed the robber barons the thieves and the grafters and thus appeased those of the old school who demanded the old standards of personal honesty Secondly they made treaty with the petty bourgeoisie by guarantying them reasonable and certain income from their investments while they gradually deprived them of real control in industry And finally they made treaty with labor by dealing with it as a powerful determined unit and dividing it up into skilled union labor with which the new industry shared profit in the shape of higher wage and other privileges and a great reservoir of common and foreign labor which it kept at work at low wages with the threat of starvation and with police controlIt was not then that the post bellum South could not produce wealth with free labor it was the far fundamental uestion as to whom this wealth was to belong to and for whose interests laborers were to workThe charge against the poor freuent as it always is in democratic movements is not valid The first attempt of a democracy which includes the previously disenfranchised poor is to redistribute wealth and income and this is exactly what the black South attempted The theory is that the wealth and the current income of the wealthy ruling class does not belong to them entirely but is the product of the work and striving of the great millions and that therefore these millions ought to have a voice in its euitable distribution And if this is true in modern countries like France and England and Germany how much true was it in the South after the war where the poorest class represented the most extreme case of theft of labor that the world can conceive namely chattel slaveryOn the other hand there is not the slightest doubt but that the South had a right to demand of the nation that the whole of the burden of this readjustment of wealth should not fall upon the planters guilty as they were of supreme exploitation of labor their guilt was shared by the rest of the nation just as the rest of the nation had for centuries shared the profits of the slave system It would have been fair and just for the cost of emancipating the slaves and giving them land to be euitably shared by the whole of the United StatesIt may be contended that the presence of a mass of unlettered and inexperienced voters in a state makes bribery and graft easier and capable of misuse by malign elements This is true But the uestion is is the situation any better if ignorance and poverty are permanently disenfranchised The whole answer of modern industrial conditions is no it is not And the only alternative therefore is the one continually urged by Sumner Philips and Stevens if ignorance is dangerous instruct it If poverty is the cause of stealing and crime increase the income of the massesSoutherners argued that if the Negro was disenfranchised normal political life would be possible for the South They did not realize that a living working class can never lose its political power and that all they did in 1876 was to transfer that political power from the hands of labor to the hands of capital where it has been concentrated ever sinceOur histories tend to discuss American slavery so impartially that in the end nobody seems to have done wrong and everybody was rightHe was trained to make profits He used his profits to write history My definition of a favorite includes books that upon finishing I find that I am yet again at the beginning of the ethical road I have committed myself to This book kicked my ass for nearly two months and while I will never forgive Du Bois for his treatment of Ida B Wells Barnett I acknowledge an essential classic of vital necessity to all times and all peoples when I see one Some would argue that the bitter anger and incendiary sarcasm that creep up amidst the litanies of facts and figures compromise the work I argue that if criticizers along this line paid as much attention to the hatred and brainwashing inherently tied up in a text s bigotry the world would be a better place The fact that it is not does not guarantee that it will be in the future It is simply the result of conscientious and malicious power grabbing along the lines of capitalism using every associated hierarchy culminating in false histories spewed out by those who survive by being the richest the whitest the most sadistic and ultimately the luckiest The time for teaching others was done long ago if indeed there was ever a time when the murdered had to pause long during their being murdered to teach their murderers the fact that certain states of existence are still taken for granted is a matter of fortune not an insurance of what form the repercussions to come will take We were eight years in power


10 thoughts on “Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois

  1. says: Free download Black Reconstruction in America 1860-1880 Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois Summary æ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ✓ W.E.B. Du Bois

    Summary æ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ✓ W.E.B. Du Bois Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois This is the book that made me realize how we in the US failed both Blacks and our democracy by undermining euality when we let Reconstruction fail so miserably after the Civil War

  2. says: Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois Free download Black Reconstruction in America 1860-1880

    Free download Black Reconstruction in America 1860-1880 Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois Summary æ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ✓ W.E.B. Du Bois A truly extraordinary work Beautifully written cogently and convincingly argued Passionate and powerful and vital Read it Some Americans think and say that the nation freed the black slave and gave him a vote and that unable to use it intelligently he lost it That is not so To win the war America freed the slave and armed him; and the threat to arm the mass of the black workers of the Confederacy stopped the war Nor does this f

  3. says: Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois W.E.B. Du Bois ✓ 0 review Free download Black Reconstruction in America 1860-1880

    Free download Black Reconstruction in America 1860-1880 W.E.B. Du Bois ✓ 0 review Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois I've read lots of parts of this book especially in the research for my book but I just finally read it start to finish and it was just really d

  4. says: Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois Summary æ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ✓ W.E.B. Du Bois W.E.B. Du Bois ✓ 0 review

    Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois Wow This book is monumental It took me weeks to read it and it was completely worth it Du Bois provides an exhaustively detailed account of the Reconstruction years delves into the foundations of public education and with solid economicMarxist analysis thoroughly repudiates the previously published work on the period In my provincial middle and high school education the Reconstruction period got nary a mention and this book than makes up

  5. says: W.E.B. Du Bois ✓ 0 review Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois

    Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois It would not have been American however not to have maintained some color discrimination however pettyBroken limbs broken heads the mangling of bodies all prove that it was a contest between enraged men on the one side from hatred to a race; and on the other desire for self preservation revenge for past grievances and the inhuman murder of

  6. says: Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois W.E.B. Du Bois ✓ 0 review

    Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois DuBois' massive Black Reconstruction is a challenging read but well worth the effort and timeBefore this book mainstream American history portrayed Black slaves as passive recipients of the gift of freedom and blamed them for the failure of the Reconstruction governments DuBois turned this analysis around and showed how four million Black people won their own freedom won the right to vote and started to build a real Amer

  7. says: Free download Black Reconstruction in America 1860-1880 Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois W.E.B. Du Bois ✓ 0 review

    Free download Black Reconstruction in America 1860-1880 Summary æ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ✓ W.E.B. Du Bois W.E.B. Du Bois ✓ 0 review In 1929 the editors of the Encyclopedia Britannica reuested that WEB Du Bois draft an article on the subject of southern Reconstruction following the American Civil War for the forthcoming edition In a passage challenging

  8. says: Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois

    Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois W.E.B. Du Bois ✓ 0 review Summary æ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ✓ W.E.B. Du Bois Basic elements of the story of America's civil war will be familiar to many who have grown up in this country Yet as WEB DuB

  9. says: Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois

    Free download Black Reconstruction in America 1860-1880 Summary æ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ✓ W.E.B. Du Bois W.E.B. Du Bois ✓ 0 review When I was in graduate school I noted somewhat facetiously in a seminar that modern historians of African American history and Reconstruction were all writing books that essentially said DuBois was right about this too I was reminded of the revolutionary nature of this book when I decided to set aside time over winter break to read the book

  10. says: Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois

    Free Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 BY W.E.B. Du Bois I decided to read this book after attending a community book forum on Ta Nehisi Coates's Between the World and Me This was one of the books recommended for further reading I should also confess I read it in part because my high school US history teacher a man otherwise uite good at what he did chose to skip over this part of America's story That's right we covered the Civil War and then went straight to the Panama Canal as if not

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